Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A New Energy Future for the US

We’ve spoken previously about the potential for fuel-cell growth in developing countries like India, and there’s no doubt that hydrogen fuel cells could help lead those regions into a cleaner, more efficient future.  It’s not just developing regions overseas that can best benefit from an amplified fuel-cell economy, however. The time is ripe for established world powers reliant upon traditional energy sources to change their ways, and according to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office December 2014 State of the States report, the United States is on the precipice of such a change.

US Hydrogen Fuel Blog - image

Fuel cells aren’t a new concept in the U.S.: NASA used them as a source for power on their Apollo missions back in the 1960’s. But because of the time it has taken to adapt fuel cell technology to consumer usability, hydrogen hasn’t been a viable option for American energy infrastructure. Until now.

“The United States is at the forefront of the fuel cell economy, and Intelligent Energy is perfectly poised to take advantage of the rapidly accelerating growth in the American fuel cell market,” confirmed Intelligent Energy’s Head of US Operations and Group Corporate Development Director Julian Hughes.

Intelligent Energy has been working with a private and public coalition called H2 USA started by the US Department of Energy devoted to a low-carbon future and promoting a hydrogen fuel cell infrastructure in the United States. Most notably,

increased sanctions and incentives have encouraged both public utilities and private companies to drastically reduce their emissions, and the fuel cells that Intelligent Energy offers have the scale to support and ultimately replace traditional infrastructure in the States.

Outside of these sanctions, there are several other reasons hydrogen fuel cells present an excellent energy alternative. Hydrogen fuel cell power is reliable: recent episodes of extreme weather in the United States, from hurricanes and tornados to blizzards, have time and again rendered antiquated power infrastructures belabored and blacked out, with masses of constituents left suffering in the cold and dark. Already, American power and utilities companies have begun incorporating hydrogen fuel cell power alongside traditional means of production, and stand only to increase that investment in the future.

Fuel cell adaptability is also appealing. Both in crisis scenarios and in everyday life, consumers’ lives have become increasingly mobile. The traditional grid just cannot completely support the energy needs of the always-on consumer. Who knows what the technology needs of future consumers will be? Whatever they are, we need to be ready with a portfolio of energy solutions. Moreover, all studies indicate that our lives are moving towards becoming only increasingly mobilised. (Don’t believe us? Just take a look at the offerings from this year’s Consumer Electronics Show.)  Portable, personal hydrogen fuel cell solutions like our Upp meet these needs and allow us all to live free from the grid and the emissions associated with it.

“Fuel cell growth in the US has the momentum, and it has the support. The Department of Energy has prioritised fuel cell development in the states, and even the American Department of Defense has taken an interest in utilising fuel cells in their military branches,” Hughes continued. Indeed, a recent report released on behalf of the US Department of Energy by RCNOS not only confirmed the currently escalating demand for fuel cells in the states, but also predicted that it will continue to rise at an annual growth rate of 23% through 2020.

The time for hydrogen fuel cells has arrived. Adoption, however, can’t just come from the UK. As Toyota president Akio Toyoda stated upon the release of all the company’s hydrogen fuel cell patents to the public, “[Hydrogen] needs to be a worldwide effort.”

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Debunking the myths—Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) can work for the mass market

by Dr. Henri Winand, CEO of Intelligent Energy.

In 2014 the fuel cell market expanded rapidly across the globe. The United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France and Japan all saw significant growth. Several forces have combined to ensure ongoing adoption of fuel cell technology: public-private investment initiatives, government funding for infrastructure and consumer subsidies and falling production costs included. Most notable, however, is the commitment to future OEM launches of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).

Toyota, Honda and Hyundai all recently announced plans to make FCEVs available to consumers. A hydrogen-powered version of Hyundai’s Tucson sport utility vehicle has already appeared in Southern California showrooms. In August 2014, Hyundai’s ix35 fuel cell model was driven a record distance for a hydrogen-powered production car on a single tank, covering 435 miles across three Scandinavian countries. Honda next year will offer Californians futuristic sedans that can travel 300 miles or more on a tank of hydrogen gas while emitting nothing but pure water vapor. And, Toyota’s FCEV the Mirai, already available in Japan, will become available in the U.S., UK, Germany and Denmark in summer 2015.

These FCEV developments have all occurred in the midst of the lowest oil prices in years. Questions have lingered has to how the drop in oil prices will affect natural gas and hydrogen, and there aren’t clear answers. But one thing does remain certain: oil prices will always be volatile (and are perhaps bouncing back already), and having alternative fuels available is necessary for energy security, economic and environmental purposes.

Despite progress on FCEVs, their environmental advantage of zero tailpipe emissions, and their ability to run without dependence on oil, misconceptions about fuel cells’ power, efficiency and cost persist.

It’s time to debunk some myths.

Myth #1: Hydrogen power isn’t efficient

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, but accessing it for use requires extracting it from water or organic compounds. We produce diesel fuel and gasoline similarly, by refining and cleaning crude oil, a process we know harms the environment. While hydrogen comes in large part from natural gas, we can also extract it from renewable resources—making it not only efficient but also sustainable. Hydrogen can come from solar power, wind turbines and biogas without using any fossil fuels. As the energy market shifts more and more toward renewables, hydrogen remains a viable, “green” resource.

Also highlighting hydrogen’s efficiency, FCEVs emit zero carbon from their tailpipes. According to a report by the California Fuel Cell Partnership, even FCEVs that run on hydrogen derived from natural gas outshine gasoline-powered vehicles in efficiency and environmental impact, emitting 55 to 65 percent less carbon. Fuel cells also perform more efficiently than internal combustion engines, whether or not the hydrogen for the fuel cells comes from natural gas or renewables.

Myth #2: Hydrogen gas is dangerous

Hydrogen is just another fuel, it is no more dangerous or safer than other fuels such as gasoline, propane or natural gas, like all fuels it has a particular hazard set which must be respected.

Hydrogen in fact has a rapid diffusivity (3.8 times faster than natural gas), which means that when released, it dilutes quickly into a non-flammable concentration. The gasoline currently used poses an ignitable hazard for long after it’s been released, and when it catches fire the heat it generates can cause secondary fires. Conversely, hydrogen, because of its low emissivity, burns cooler—a person can put his/her hand next to a hydrogen flame and not get burned.

And, to assure the safety of using hydrogen on board vehicles using storage tanks, Toyota reported that they fired bullets at their carbon-fiber fuel tanks, and the bullets did little more than bounce off or make small dents.

Myth #3: FCEVs are too expensive to build so they aren’t a mass-market solution

Advances in fuel cell manufacturing and catalyst performance recently decreased the cost of fuel cell production dramatically. Gil Castillo, senior group manager of advanced vehicles for Hyundai in California, said costs have dropped 70% since the company began working on fuel cells in the late 1990s. Production has become so much less expensive that Hyundai has also announced it is leasing its hydrogen SUV for $499 a month, with fuel thrown in for free.

Manufacturers are working hard to further reduce the cost of FCEVs, and as they scale production for mass market, standard volume manufacturing and product engineering forces will help. In fact, Toyota recently mentioned that it has been able to streamline its FCEV manufacturing process by gaining Japanese government approval to build and inspect hydrogen tanks, which is expected to help reduce the enabling costs of installing fuel cells into electric vehicles.

Government funding initiatives and subsidies help too. On May 1, 2014, the California Energy Commission announced that it will invest $46.6 million to accelerate the development of publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in California in order to promote a consumer market for zero-emission fuel cell vehicles. Furthermore, in 2013, the Obama administration had already launched the U.S.’s hydrogen strategy nationwide through the launch of H2USA—a public-private partnership focused on advancing hydrogen infrastructure to support more transportation energy options for US consumers, including fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).

Myth #4: Filling FCEV tanks with hydrogen will be difficult and slow

Drivers don’t have to make significant changes to their refueling behaviors to fill up their FCEV with hydrogen. A similar ‘nozzle-to-car’ method is the norm and unlike many other alternative fuel vehicles, standards already exist. The fuel cell electric vehicles manufactured by Toyota, Hyundai and Honda already allow an ‘at-pump’ refuel that will take only a few minutes, and drivers do not have to fill up again for several hundred miles.

Myth #5: FCEVs can’t handle long journeys

FCEVs offer zero tailpipe emission motoring without compromising on performance and range. The ability to carry more energy on-board the fuel cell vehicle in comparison to a battery powered car means that the fuel cell vehicles have greater range. And performance has improved over time. An FCEV can now achieve a much longer range with an on-board hydrogen gas tank, making it competitive with conventional and hybrid vehicles. In a real-world test on California roads, National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers demonstrated that a fuel cell-powered Toyota Highlander SUV can travel more than 400 miles and achieve a fuel economy of 69 miles per gallon equivalent. In fact, hydrogen cars now coming onto the market have triple the range of most battery-powered electric cars.

With the advancement of fuel cell technology, the adoption of FCEVs becomes easier and more advantageous. Ever tightening global policies on carbon emissions will make their adoption necessary. Industry partners from OEMs to governments and fuel cell technology providers need to continue to work together to deliver hydrogen as a highly scalable and viable emission-free, mass-market energy alternative.

We’re excited about the opportunity that fuel cell technology offers to the automotive industry and beyond, and we look forward to welcoming further market advancements in the next few years as the technology and the vehicles enter the mainstream.

The Fuel Cell Expo and Japan’s Hydrogen Energy Future

It’s been a big year for fuel cells in Japan, with a lot happening in the automotive arena. First, Toyota made available all of their hydrogen fuel cell patents  to promote the development and commercialisation of fuel cell electric vehicles. Then, the Japanese government announced that they’re planning on spending $385 million on fuel-cell vehicle subsidies and hydrogen stations for the 2020 Olympics. Clearly, Japan is one of the pioneers of  a new alternative energy future with hydrogen at the forefront, which makes sense given their ongoing struggle with CO2 emissions(at the year end of March 2014, they reached a record high of 1.2 billion metric tons released) and the move away from nuclear power following the Fukushima disaster.

Fuel Cell Expo

Photo Credit: www.fcexpo.jp

As leaders in hydrogen fuel cell development, Intelligent Energy has had a strong presence in Japan for some time, particularly in the automotive market. We first partnered with Suzuki back in 2006, and together produced the Suzuki Fuel Cell Burgman scooter, the first fuel cell vehicle of any type to receive whole vehicle type approval. Further to this, in 2012, Suzuki and Intelligent Energy formed the joint venture company, Smile FC System Corporation, to develop and manufacture fuel cell systems.

So what’s the next big thing in Japan with hydrogen fuel cells? That’s what was discussed at the Fuel Cell Expo at the Tokyo International Exhibition Center that took place from February 25 through February 27. As the world’s leading hydrogen fuel cell exhibition and conference, it gathered together all the best products, technologies, information and leaders in the industry to share ideas about how best to improve technology and learn more efficient techniques.

Besides the push around fuel cell electric cars, there was other hydrogen technology that caught our eye: a portable hydrogen station mounted on the back of a truck, an infra-red sensing hydrogen dispenser and updates to existing models of hydrogen fuellers that will make them more efficient.

Were you at the Expo? What was your favorite exhibition and trend highlighted there?

TechCrunch Disrupt London Gets to #PowerUpp with Intelligent Energy

While we had a blast helping TechCrunch Disrupt SF live life unplugged a few weeks ago, we wanted to bring some of that great buzz closer to home. Fortunately, we got the chance to do just that this week at TechCrunch Disrupt in London. There are no shortage of bright minds and great ideas on our side of the pond, and so it was great to show off Upp amongst more local peers.

How did we fare on our home turf?  Better than ever! Once again, it turns out there’s nothing like wandering around a conference all day and draining your phone battery by noon to make you appreciate when someone hands you a portable hydrogen fuel cell. By 11 am both days, we had desperate attendees swarming the booth, many of them notified of our presence by the groundswell of enthusiasm for Upp on social media.

Tweet 1The TechCrunch attendees were not only incredibly appreciative of the convenience of getting to borrow a portable charger, but they were also completely wowed by the technology itself. Given the technical background of many of the attendees, they were fascinated by the sophisticated fuel cell technology compressed into Upp, and truly amazed that this kind of product will soon be available for them to purchase and use on a daily basis. The crew from ITProPortal even stopped by, and were so impressed by our demo that they featured Upp as one of the most exciting finds at the conference in their roundup of the action.

Tweet 2

Favourite moment? When a conference goer arrived at our stand with another battery pack, which he’d unfortunately forgotten to charge before heading out to TechCrunch, thus rendering it useless. It really brought home the benefits of Upp versus other portable chargers – why live your life attached to wall charging but just with a longer tether when you could abandon the socket altogether and live life unplugged? Upp saved the day, and we charged not just his depleted phone, but his battery as well. Needless to say, we can now count him as one of our successful converts.

It was another great event, and the buzz about Upp is only continuing to grow. Luckily, all of our devotees won’t have much longer to wait!

London conference highlights hydrogen’s potential to investor audience

On 1 October, hydrogen specialists from some of the world’s biggest industrial companies assembled in London to address an audience of investors and City analysts on the potential of hydrogen to meet our energy requirements and transform how we consume energy.

The half-day conference – ‘Hydrogen: the new energy landscape’ – was organised by financial services firm Canaccord Genuity, and featured speakers from French industrial gases group Air Liquide, Japanese carmaker Honda, and German industrial giant Siemens.

Together they gave a fascinating insight into the potential of hydrogen as a source of energy, in sectors such as automotive, and as a vital ingredient to turn renewable energy into stored power through the application of electrolysis.

Attendees at the event were left in no doubt about the investment potential in the sector, with Canaccord technology analyst Bob Liao highlighting the pace of change in the hydrogen space and the capacity of market participants to roll out ‘disruptive’ hydrogen technology at an industrial scale.

Among the first to take the podium was Dr Henri Winand: the chief executive of Intelligent Energy told a packed room how the need for greater efficiency in power generation and transmission, coupled with the rise in personal mobile devices, would see a return from Alternative Current (AC), or grid-generated, power to more localised Direct Current (DC)-generated power consumption – benefiting hydrogen-fuelled distributed power generation.

Deputy Mayor of London Kit Malthouse, an enthusiastic advocate of hydrogen, illustrated Londoners’ lukewarm interest in electric cars with a startling fact:  68 percent of charging points in the capital were not used at all between April and June 2014. This he attributed to the significant time taken to recharge an electric car. By comparison, the fact that there was no ‘behavioural change’ required to refuel a hydrogen electric vehicle – because of the speed of refuelling – meant they had the potential to be far more popular.

On the same day that Toyota announced at the Paris Motor Show that its hydrogen-powered vehicle would go on sale next summer in Germany and the UK, Honda’s Thomas Brachmann told the conference that the company would also start selling hydrogen cars next year in Europe, and was working on a second-generation vehicle for 2019. Both Brachmann and Pierre Etienne Franc of Air Liquide spoke about the benefits of the European-funded HyFIVE project which will deploy hydrogen vehicles across Europe and thus help nurture clusters of refuelling stations.

Other speakers included Duncan Macleod, a consultant and former Shell executive, who explained how hydrogen was already a part of the world of Big Oil and had formed part of the oil and gas business for decades. While Gaelle Hotellier, head of hydrogen solutions at Siemens, spoke about how the German company was marketing its own PEM electrolysis system to industrial customers as it moves towards commercialisation of its hydrogen technologies.

The hydrogen landscape is certainly moving from theory to reality!

London Tourists and Shoppers Seize the Chance to ‘Live Life Unplugged’

With the launch of Upp growing ever closer, we thought that we’d give the British public a taste of life free from the grid. For one week, beginning 22nd September we set up a sneak preview booth in London’s Covent Garden that gave many people their first chance to get ‘hands-on’ with Upp – hydrogen fuel cell technology.

Shoppers and tourists were able to give their smart devices a quick top-up (a godsend in one of the Capital’s biggest tourist hotspots!) or even borrow an Upp while they took in the shopping and sights that London has to offer – simply swipe their card and take the opportunity to live life unplugged for a day. Visitors to the booth were also invited to take an Instagram picture of themselves at the stand, tagged with the hashtag #powerupp which would be insta-printed at the stand.

Alongside our many activities for Upp, we also had the hydrogen-powered fuel cell London Taxi on display. For many people, hydrogen power is something they usually associate with cars and we felt this was a great way to show the versatility of hydrogen fuel cells. What’s more, it perfectly illustrated how Intelligent Energy has miniaturised a technology synonymous with powering vehicles into a handheld consumer product that can be used to power your phone, tablet or camera.

The taxi also served as a handy booth where people could come and share how they feel when their phone battery dies; it’s fair to say that the frustration felt is universal! In fact, here are a few of the responses we received:

  • “Amazing getting the idea from a taxi, Great for the environment, everyone should have one.”
  • “Great that its clean energy, Lots of potential, it can charge more than one variant of devices.”
  • “Very robust, the reversible case is great, the rate of charge is phenomenal.”
  • “Great that its clean energy, Lots of potential, it can charge more than one variant of  devices.”

The response received over the week was genuinely encouraging and only served to reinforce our belief that the world is ready for fuel cell technology – it won’t be long now before it’s in their hands.

Toyota Bringing Hydrogen FCEVs to UK in Summer 2015

The Paris Motor Show began this week with news of Toyota’s intention to bring its Fuel Cell Sedan to Britain, Germany, Denmark and US in summer 2015. This announcement from the world’s largest vehicle manufacturer demonstrates that the imminent roll-out of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) to the consumer is now a reality and will give a welcome boost to efforts elsewhere to introduce these clean but practical electric vehicles.

The UK’s commitment to low emission vehicles is something we experienced first-hand at CENEX Low Carbon Vehicle 2014 last month and has been cited as a major factor as to why Toyota has chosen the UK as one of its ‘test bed’ markets. Already we’re seeing the UK invest in infrastructure to support FCEVs in the shape of the HyFive Project which is bringing refuelling stations to the Capital, also slated for arrival next year.

In Toyota’s own words hydrogen has great potential as an alternative fuel. It can be produced from a wide variety of primary energy sources, including solar and wind power; it is easy to store and transport; and when compressed, it has a higher energy density than batteries.” Moreover, refuelling times, performance and range for FCEVs are all comparable to that of traditional combustion engine vehicles

A landmark announcement from Toyota, but expect to see more from others as the momentum builds towards the widespread roll out FCEVs and the fuelling infrastructure to support them.

Hydrogen safety – a matter of design

For anyone who visited Hall 27 at Hannover Messe this year it was clear that hydrogen is becoming widely accepted as a viable, sustainable energy carrier. Over 150 exhibitors from 25 countries displayed  hydrogen related products 8  ranging from automotive fuel cell power applications, residential generation (micro-CHP), distributed power generation to a wide array of grid scale ‘power-to-gas’ energy storage solutions.

Making hydrogen fuel safe for consumer use has ultimately been achieved through manufacturers’ rigorous product safety testing and third party design validation programs   to provide the same safety standards in hydrogen fuel delivery, storage and use that are achieved with fossil fuels today  23

The result of these efforts can be seen in the automotive sector by the release of the Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell CUV in 2013 13   and both Toyota14  and Honda 15 announcing series production of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) in the 2015 – 2020 timeframe which will  have undergone rigorous crash test and hydrogen storage tank safety testing to ensure vehicle and passenger safety 12.


Fig 1: Toyota at CES 2014 – Source: Toyota website http://www.toyota.com/fuelcell/

Toyota executive Bob Carter was widely reported at the Automotive News World Congress in January 2014 as saying that bullets from a small-calibre gun bounced off their carbon-fibre hydrogen fuel tank, and that a 0.50-caliber bullet barely made dents.2

Directive 2007/46/EC 24 establishes a framework for the approval of motor vehicles as laid down by the European Parliament and the Council. In January 2009 type-approval of hydrogen-powered motor vehicles was included in the directive with the addition of regulation EC No 79/200916. Hydrogen vehicle tank testing described in EC 79/2009 includes the requirements for impact damage testing, to provide evidence the tank can withstand specified mechanical impacts, and penetration testing to provide evidence that the container does not rupture when penetrated by a bullet. 7

The following excerpt from the Honda Clarity FCX website1 also provides a reassuring overview of other FCEV hydrogen safety features:

Hydrogen Safety 1

Sensors are located throughout the vehicle to provide a warning in the unlikely event of a hydrogen leak. Should such a leak occur, the ventilation system is activated and an automatic system closes the main cut-off valves on the hydrogen tank or supply lines as necessary. The high-voltage lines are electrically isolated. In the event of a collision, the system controller automatically shuts off the flow of hydrogen and electric current. Repeated flood and fire testing have confirmed a very high level of safety and reliability.

Refuelling Safety 1

Honda has taken safety precautions with regard to refuelling safety. To prevent reverse flow from the tank, the hydrogen filler inlet has an integrated check valve. The fuel intake mechanism is also designed to prevent contamination by other gases or the connection of nozzles designed for hydrogen stored at incompatible pressure levels.

Source 1 : Honda Clarity website: http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/hydrogen-safety.aspx

Hydrogen filling stations

To support FCEV introduction a growing number of hydrogen filling stations have opened globally to serve the early adopters of fuel cell technology. According to TÜV SÜD consulting services there are now 516 operational hydrogen filling stations safely operating worldwide today 6, with ramp-up plans to develop further stations in most global regions. The safety requirements for the transportation, storage and handling of compressed and liquid hydrogen for these stations is well understood and governed by established codes, standards and practices 17 18, since hydrogen has been used extensively in industrial applications and international space programs for the last forty years.

These well established and proven best practices, together with the continued development of global harmonized safety standards should ensure that consumers have confidence to switch from traditional fossil fuels to hydrogen, without concerns over refuelling or vehicle safety.

Portable hydrogen safety

In the consumer electronics sector, the successful third party safety validation of the Intelligent Energy Upp™ portable fuel cell charging system in 2014 was the culmination of considerable development to ensure that the product was safe for global shipment and sale. 22

(1)   ISO 16111: 2008 – (transportable gas storage devices), which defines the material, design, construction and testing requirements for hydrogen in metal hydride storage systems.

(2)   IEC 62282-6-100 – (Micro fuel cell power systems – Safety 2010) which covers the basic safety requirements for all micro fuel cell systems (fuel cell + cartridge).

International third party validation test houses, such as UL (www.ul.com), CSA (www.csagroup.org), TÜV (www.tuv.com) and Kiwa (www.kiwa-eup.com ), have worked with industry OEMs to provide bespoke test facilities to support the product certification of portable fuel cell systems for public use.21

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)and Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) have also issued guidelines that allow passengers to carry certified portable fuel cell devices and two spare hydrogen fuel cartridges on passenger aircraft in carry-on baggage 19   . This decision was a pivotal safety endorsement by the aviation industry for portable consumer fuel cell systems.

Fig 2: The Upp fuel cell charging system from Intelligent Energy
http://www.beupp.com

Know your fuel (H2)

Hydrogen is no more or less dangerous than any existing fossil fuels used today, it just has a different set of usage requirements based on its inherent characteristics as a gas. Compared to petroleum and natural gas fuels, hydrogen actually has two key properties that can provide safety benefits in its utilisation:

Dispersal

Hydrogen rapidly disperses into the atmosphere upon its release (up to 2.8 times faster than natural gas through the same size exit hole 11), quickly diluting to non-flammable concentrations 9.  Heavier gasses such as petroleum fumes and propane tend to concentrate at ground level posing a greater ignition risk. Hydrogen has a wide flammability range, 4% to 74% in air, but its natural dispersal tendency as the lightest element makes it difficult to contain outside of its designed containment device. Ventilation is a key design criterion in FCEV and all hydrogen systems to ensure the unrestricted dispersal of any released gas.

Low radiant flame heat

A hydrogen flame burns with low levels of radiated heat near the flame compared to a hydrocarbon flame, significantly reducing the risk of secondary fire. Tests performed on automotive hydrogen fuel tanks simulating the ignition of a hydrogen leak, burned for less than two minutes with no damage to the interior of the vehicle, due to the low radiant heat of the flame 10.

Hydrogen is non-toxic and a release does not cause atmospheric pollution. It is a highly versatile natural energy carrier which if properly handled within defined guidelines can be safely integrated into widespread consumer use under existing, well established codes and practices.

 

End

 

Sources:

Source 1 : Honda Clarity website: http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/hydrogen-safety.aspx

Source 2:Tech Investor News http://www.techinvestornews.com/Green/Latest-Green-Tech-News/official-toyota-fires-bullets-into-hydrogen-fuel-tanks-shoots-down-ev-suppo

Source 3: Roads2Hycom –compressed hydrogen storage. Doc ID 8262.March 2014

Source 4: BP website – filling stations http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/our-history/history-of-bp/special-subject-histories/service-stations.html

Source 5: Highbeam gasoline service station business report http://business.highbeam.com/industry-reports/retail/gasoline-service-stations

Source 6: TUV website: global listing of active hydrogen filling stations http://www.netinform.net/h2/H2Stations/Default.aspx

Source 7: EC79/2009 hydrogen safety directive

Source 8 – Hannover Messe website: exhibitor statistics: http://www.hannovermesse.de/search

Source 9 – The Hydrogen Association: hydrogen safety fact sheet: http://www.fchea.org/index.php?id=50

Source 10  – Fuel Leak Simulation. Dr Michael R. Swain – University of Miami. Doc Link: Ref: http://evworld.com/article.cfm?storyid=482

Source 11   Safety issues of hydrogen in vehicles Frano Barbir / Energy Partners: http://courses.engr.illinois.edu/npre470/web/readings/Hydrogen%20safety%20issues.pdf

Source 12   US Department of Transport: FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS
AND REGULATIONS http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/import/FMVSS/

Source 13  Hyundai news room:http://www.hyundainews.com/us/en-us/FuelCell/PressReleases.aspx

Source 14  Toyota news room:http://www.toyota-global.com/innovation/environmental_technology/fuelcell_vehicle/

Source 15  Honda news room:http://world.honda.com/news/2013/4131120FCEV-Concept-Los-Angeles-Auto-Show/index.html

Source 16 : TRL Hydrogen-powered vehicles: review of type-approval legislation on vehicle safety http://www.pedz.uni-mannheim.de/daten/edz-h/gdb/10/report-hydrogen-powered-vehicles_en.pdf

Source 17 : Hydrogen Codes and Standards Technical Report prepared by the Partnership for Advancing the Transition to Hydrogen, Washington DC: http://www.hpath.org/resources/TechnicalReport.pdf

Source 18 : CALIFORNIA HYDROGEN FUELING STATION GUIDELINES: September 2004. REF:600-04-002V1 http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2004-10-14_600-04-002V1.PDF

Source 19   FAA hazardous materials regulations: http://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/hazmat_safety/

Source 20  Air Products: Hydrogen safety website statement: http://www.airproducts.co.uk/industries/Energy/Power/Power-Generation/hydrogen-fuel-safety.aspx

Source 21   KIWA: Testing and Certification of Hydrogen & Fuel Cells: http://www.kiwaenergyusingproducts.com/uploadedFiles/Expert_Center/EuP/News_and_Publications/Hydrogen2_brochure_v2.pdf

Source 22   Intelligent Energy News Room: http://www.intelligent-energy.com/about-us/media-room/news/company-news/2014/04/29/upp-portable-fuel-cell-the-clean-energy-alternative-for-powering-usb-devices-receives-industry-certification

Source 23 Hydrogen / Fuel Cell Codes and Standards Overview: http://www.fuelcellstandards.com/

Source 24European Commission Directive 2007/46/EC (Framework Directive): http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/automotive/documents/directives/directive-2007-46-ec_en.htm

Hydrogen – Fuelling the Zero Emission Drive in the Golden State

California has long been a global leader in the adoption of new zero-emission technology – the state’s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) programme for example, requires vehicle manufacturers to offer specific numbers of the cleanest car technologies available for sale, specifically hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)and has been designed to achieve long-term emission reduction goals.

 ZEV regulation was first adopted in California in 1990 and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Advanced Clean Cars Program requires that over 10% of new vehicle sales are electric drive by 2025.In March of 2012, Governor Jerry Brown, signed an executive order that established a goal of 1.5 million ZEVs on California’s roadways also by 2025.

Major automotive manufacturers such as Toyota and Hyundai have stated that they intend to make their FCEVs available to the motoring public from 2014/15. The car manufacturers are likely to first launch their fuel cell vehicles in geographies where plans to put in place hydrogen refuelling infrastructure are most advanced. These include Germany, Japan, Scandinavia, the UK, Korea and of course, California.

On the 1st of May, the California Energy Commission  announced that it will invest $46.6 million to accelerate the development of publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in California in order to promote a consumer market for zero-emission fuel cell vehicles.The funding will progress the Governor’s executive order directing the state government to support and facilitate the rapid commercialisation of ZEVs in California, with a benchmark that the state’s zero-emission vehicle infrastructure will be able to support up to one million vehicles by 2020.The funding has been made to eight applicants through the Energy Commission’s Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (ARFVTP), and includes six 100% renewable hydrogen refueling stations. It will add a further 28 new refueling stations across the state: 13 in Northern California and 15 in Southern California, strategically situated to create a refueling network along major corridors and in regional centres. In addition, a mobile refueller will provide added reliability to the early hydrogen refueling network by providing refueling capability when stations are off-line.

These 28 new hydrogen refueling stations are in addition to the nine existing refueling locations and the 17 stations currently under development in California and will bring the total up to 54. This is a significant milestone for the initiative, which aims to establish a total 100-station network across the state to support the full commercialisation of fuel cell vehicles.

Interestingly, it also recently emerged that Toyota itself is not just involved in the manufacture and introduction of FCEVs, but is also directly contributing to the development of a hydrogen fuel infrastructure in California by injecting at least $7.2 million in First Element Fuel, a company planning to operate pumps and sell hydrogen for passenger cars.

As a further part of its drive towards increased numbers of ZEVs and to advance hydrogen transportation, the California Energy Commission and Air Resources Board announced at the end of April that the state of California itself has joined H2 USA. This is a public–private partnership led by the U.S. Department of Energy focused on  establishing a hydrogen fueling infrastructure and accelerating the commercialization of FCEVs.

As the above recent developments demonstrate, the move towards zero-emission technology for transport is gathering pace in California with refuelling infrastructure to enable the commercialisation of fuel cell electric vehicles beginning to take shape. California is once again taking a leading role in making zero-emission vehicles a practical and large scale reality.

EU makes major headway towards a hydrogen fuelled future

The hydrogen fuel cell sector has recently seen two milestone wins. Firstly, the European Council recently agreed a second wave of funding for the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 (FCH2) Joint Technology Initiative (JTI), a decision that was subsequently formally adopted by the EU Member States on the 6th May.  Following its successful first phase set up in 2008, the initiative will continue to develop a portfolio of clean, efficient and affordable fuel cells and hydrogen technologies up to the point of market introduction. Under the EU’s new funding programme – Horizon 2020 – the programme will be fitted with an increased budget of €1.33bn.

This news is confirmation that the European Commission sees a very positive future for hydrogen and fuel cells. This public private partnership will leverage private investments in the technologies up to at least the same amount as the public funds. This encourages market opportunities to be realised due to supported investment as it seeks “to develop commercially viable, clean solutions that use hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel cells as energy converters”.

Secondly, the Clean Power for Transport Package (CPTP) adopted by the EU Parliament on April 15th proposes measures that ensure the build-up of alternative fuel stations across Europe with common standards for their design and use including EU wide standardisation of recharging plugs for electric vehicles. Member states will have to provide a minimum infrastructure for alternative fuels, including hydrogen.

Siim Kallas, Vice President of Transport for the European Commission commented that this was “a clear signal that Europe is putting clean fuels at the heart of its transport policy, and the drive to develop a transport system fit for the 21st century.”

These two exciting milestones make for a powerful combination. They demonstrate a high level of confidence, both from government and industry, in the prospects for hydrogen fuel cell technologies, offer a major opportunity for Europe to establish a leading position in a fast growing global market, and help to build Europe’s international competitiveness.

 

Note:

Intelligent Energy is an active member of the New Energy World Industry Grouping (NEW-IG), the leading industrial association representing a major grouping of companies, both large and SMEs, working in the fuel cell and hydrogen sector. NEW-IG partners work with the European Commission and the research community to accelerate the market introduction of these clean technologies in the energy and transport sectors.